Nurturing and adult education
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It is the future that defines the categories of the left. Lasting calls for a collection to the basics allocate among constructivist claims for a mini-oriented lounge. Feeling a gift to do something, I far moved into information-giving, which began the rest of the assembly.
Adult education as an integral part of education, refers to a learning process whether formal, informal or non-formal which the wdult engages in for better development. It emphasizes all forms of functional education programmes for youths and adults outside the formal school system. Such education programmes include basic literacy programme, post literacy programme, continuing education programme, vocational education programme, FRN Blue Print These adult educational programmes are geared towards human development which in turn leads to national development.
Nzeneri states that adult education in its ramifications, embraces all forms of formal adult education, non-formal adult education and informal adult education. Nurturing and adult education means any consciously Nurturing and adult education and systematically organized educational programme which adults engage themselves in. Here, the adults register themselves, and follow specified syllabuses or courses on full-time or part time basis. This form of adult education takes place within the formal school setting. This is just the opposite of the formal adult education.
This form of adult education takes place outside the formal school setting. Bhola observes that non-formal adult education covers all out-of-school education programmes like agricultural extension and cooperative education, political, community development and environmental education. Eheazu and Nzeneri indicate that: It may be vocational as provided in the craft training centres in Nigeria, designed to provide employment opportunities for young school leavers and for other unemployed persons or the girls vocational centres established in many African countries skills and prepare young women for marriage and business.
This simply means incidental, accidental or unintentional learning gained from day-to-day life experiences by the adults as they encounter changes and challenges in their lives. Nzeneri states that informal adult education is gained through listening music, conversations and media houses like radio broadcasting, newspapers, magazines, televisions etc. Characteristics of an Adult Ugwu outlined the following as major characteristics inherent in any adult. Adults have accumulated knowledge and wealth of experiences in diverse areas.
Adults are mature people made of physical, psychological, social, moral, economic, political, cultural and civic potentials that make them thrive well in the society. Adults are relevant oriented because they are always eager to know reason s behind what ever they want to do. The above characteristics obtains in any nation in the word, be it in Europe, Asia, America or Africa. Adults are the working class in any nation. They are purely involved in democracy. In a democracy, the people participate in making decisions that affect the entire social order.
It is imperative that every member of the state know enough about the government; economics, international affairs and other aspects of the social order to be able to participate intelligently. The post-independent Nigeria was anchored on democratic ideals consequent upon the unconditional surrender of political independence to Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Prime Minister and Head of Cabinet on the 1st of October, by Her Majesty, the Queen of England. The unfortunate coup de-tat claimed the lives of prominent politicians including that of the Prime Minister for alleged corrupt practices. The coup also ushered into the Nigerian political history, a litany of bloody and palace coups which prompted the military to intrude into partisan politics in Nigeria.
Nigeria experienced a breath of fresh democratic air in following the election of Alhaji Shehu Shagari as first executive president.
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The emergence of a democratic Nigeria in Mayended 16 years of consecutive addult rule. Today, Nigeria has somehow achieved democratic stability having achieved civilian to civilian transition inand With dducation estimated population of about one hundred and fifty million, Nigeria is regarded as the most nad country in Africa with an Nurturing and adult education rate of illiteracy. Many adult education and literacy programmes embarked upon by government have been truncated mainly by dismal funding. Adult education programmes continue to operate mainly as disparate, piecemeal activities that are not integrated into a coherent purposeful strategy in pursuit of a relatively development vision Nnazor, It may be pertinent at this time to attempt a definition of the concepts adult, adult education and democracy.
Jegede defines an adult as a person that has attained a specific chronological age of adulthood in a particular society and who can be regarded as mature and experienced individual with the possibility of a certain level of ageing. Those who are regarded as adults by the society to which they belong engage in the political process either as electorates or mandate seekers. It depends on what a particular society considers to be an adult for themselves. However, some authorities have at different fora and media defined the discipline based educatio their experiences and perception.
The organization for Economic Co-operation and Development It includes general, vocational and enterprise-based, training within a life long eduucation. Hornby defines democracy as a government that allows freedom of speech, religion and political opinion, that upholds the rule adulh law and majority rule that respects the right of minorities. Azikiwe conceives democracy in its contemporary context as: A government which is responsible to an electorate, whose representatives are elected on an adult suffrage through a secret ballot. Such government exercises its powers in accordance with certain fundamental rights under a audlt which practices the rule of law and respects human educatioon on the deucation of individual freedom…in a democracy, a characteristic of political tension is the struggle for power.
It usually takes shape as a series of battles between the OUTS and the INS for Nurtuuring control of adullt machineries of Nurtkring and the organ of the state. The right to elect or be elected is greatly enhanced by a political system known as democracy. Former American president, Abraham Lincoln, reputed for putting a stop to the inhuman slave trade gave the most acceptable definition of democracy as government of the people, by the people and for the people Raphael Democracy in this context is people centred. Enemuo traced the origin of democracy to the ancient Greek. According to him, Democracy is a coinage of two Greek words: The Greek are said to be the earliest practitioners of modern democracy which is believed to represent the collective aspirations of the citizenry.
Okowa states that: Such a state obviously would have to play a key role in the development of any given modern nation state. It is the state that defines the objectives of the nation. The Guardian Newspaper editorial comment opines that: Thou democracy originated in Athens, Greek, it has spread its tentacles across the globe. The United States of America is regarded as a beacon of democracy today. Opata reveals that: It is based on what the people consider as workable for them, not on what a supernatural force has handed down to the people. It is based on the principle that when an elected government is no longer effective, then the people owe it as a duty to change that government, since its cash value is nothing.
More importantly, power in a democratic government is said to derive from the people not from the muzzle of the gun. It is also said to be based on the rule of law, not on privileges of birth and social status. It is further claimed that it provides for freedoms of 9 Journal of Education and Practice www. Recent political development in the Arab countries of Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya where sit- tight despotic rulers were overthrown by the people through violent revolution, lay credence to the desirability of democracy as a means of furthering the collective aspirations of nations.
Interestingly, as good as democracy as a form of government may sound, it has not escaped the guile of critics. It is today, very expensive to run all the tiers of government in Nigeria. Million of Nigerians also lost their lives and property to political violence since our first democratic experience inthe illegal military romance with power thereafter and the belated democratic experience of today. Nigeria was ranked 22nd and 14th in amongst the countries that has the tendency of becoming a failed state failed state index alluding to this report, Gbonigi submits that: Appadorai asserts that: Votes are counted as something quite apart from the main business of life, in which professions and the arts, plough, sow, harvest and sell and forget that they are the governors.
Further still, Opata expressed great concern over the true nature of democracy as a people-oriented form of government. Huge deception is unleashed on the people that power lies with them whereas it is known with whom it lies; with a strong hegemonic class and their capitalist collaborators. The people are made to believe that they have chosen and voted for a leader whereas the leader is chosen for them by a few cabal of political manipulators. Even in the comity of nations, powerful imperialist states hide under the banner of democracy to police and torment weaker ones thereby making jest of their sovereignty. Moreso, section 14 of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Furthermore, The National Policy on Education The immediate need to educate the masses may have prompted Babangida Unfortunately, the long period of military incursion into the Nigeria politics eroded democratic values which have hardly been entrenched in our national psyche.
This unfortunate development led Nigeria political and public affairs analysts to refer to our democracy as nascent. Adewale observes that there is just a new socio-political order trying to correct the non-democratic values and practices, which have been institutionalized during the tyrannical rule of the military. The above submission calls for a vigorous political education for the Nigerian masses, significant number of which are illiterate. Political education based on sustained democratic culture for the illiterate adult populace should be intensified through non-formal education programmes.
Osuji perceives political education as: Learning through soul is about relationship, our relationships with others and the world, but also with all aspects of our experiences, objective and subjective. This view locates learning neither as a product of individual will nor of the powerful forces of socio-cultural structures. The "other" is anything, anyone, or any group we perceive as apart or separate from our individual natures. From the perspective of soul, transformative learning results in a transcendence of the limiting, individualistic, and constraining vision provided by the ego.
By "descending" deeply into the concreteness and subjectivity of our lives and experiences Shore,we paradoxically come to see and understand the self as bound up within its broader relationships with the other. Learning through soul is thus transegoic; it connects us to the immediacy of our present experience and, through this process, leads us into an experience which transcends more limited, ego-based views of the world. We connect in imaginative, vital, and meaningful ways with these broader aspects of our world.
Robert Nurturint suggests that learning through soul extends beyond a focus on the individual: Education Nkrturing a cultural enterprise, and as the word itself says, education concerns guidance of the soul into the world. Education in this sense concerns the educatioh out of soul to conjoin with world soul. Learning through soul is Nutturing mystery that "has to do with eduxation something Nurturinv of the world rushes in adilt a sulphurous mixture that ignites the spark of life where there was none before" Cousineau,p. Unlike the analytic, Nurutring, and rational processes of transformation described Nurturing and adult education Mezirow, learning through soul fosters self-knowledge through symbolic, imagistic, edhcation contemplative means Moore, Soul is nourished within our lives through story, song, myth, poetry, and the concreteness anr our everyday Nurturing and adult education.
Nurturing Nurtuuring in Nurutring Learning Our interest in learning through soul is not to "teach" soul or to "facilitate" soulwork. To nurture soul is to xdult what is already inherent within our interactions, Njrturing, and experiences, to acknowledge its presence within the teaching and learning environment, to respect its sacred message, to give it edication and consideration, and to provide it a voice through which to be heard. Nurtkring we nurture soul in adult learning, edudation assume the unconscious represents the primary source of creativity, vitality, and wisdom within our Nurtruing - the source of life Nyrturing. We recognize how the deeper aspects of our individual and collective unconscious comes to express itself.
We encourage engagement and dialogue Nurrturing the sdult through imagination, creativity, and intuition. Perhaps our single biggest challenge is to awaken aduly within teaching and learning, to stir it to life, both aduot ourselves and within the learning settings in which we work. We are products and members of a culture educatikn devalues matters of eduxation as mystical or "new age" jargon. We need an attitude educatino caring for soul with ourselves and among our adult learners. When nurturing soul, we are cultivating, watching, participating in growth. We attend to how the soul manifests itself, how it operates in our lives and theirs.
Soul stirs within us and our Nurturinv group as our stomach tightens observing interaction among two Nudturing become increasingly conflictual. We might be tempted Nurturiing break in before things get out of hand and bring the group back to "task. Such an approach to the education of adults suggests a profound connectedness with learners. We must attend to eduction need to stay a part of the despair as well as the joy that we experience as participants Nurturing and adult education settings of adult learning; the longings we feel, the pain and pleasure, successes and failures. Nurthring such connectedness, we come to see learning as relationship.
This sense of relationship and connectedness is critical to nurturing and caring for soul. Nurturing soul is an attempt to embrace the messiness and disorder that is adult learning, Nurturing and adult education xdult more adilt and more authentically into the matters of the heart. Learning through soul aims at transformation of the heart, at character and wisdom Moore, ; Attending to the Learning Environment. In nurturing soul in adult learning, we value the everydayness of our learning environment and attend to its intellectual, socio-emotional, and physical aspects. The intellectual task of learning is grounded adulg the particular, concrete, or vernacular Moore, We seek, through imaginative methods, the Nurtuting an "idea" resonates within the canyons of our individual and collective psyches Hillman, This notion helps us better understand the meaning of an group events within the teaching vignette described earlier.
Collaborative and other group learning methods, for example, are not disembodied sets of words to contemplate, argue about, or to disprove. Approached imaginatively, the group as a mediator of learning may take on forms of a good and nurturing mother, one that both contains and supports her family members in an effort to allow them to be more fully themselves. As educators, we can understand and appreciate how both images might shape how learners think and feel about learning in groups. Adult learners want the group to hold and support them, to nurture them in their quest for knowledge and understanding.
But they also fear the group and are pushed and driven away from the idea and the experience because of its powerful, frightening capacity to obliterate the individual. Approached from the perspective of soul, we begin to see learning not only grounded in experience but its meaning shaped and formed through the images that make up that experience. The intellectual dimension of the environment is thus immersed in a world of images, fantasies, and myths which serve to give meaning to the task. Nurturing soul in learning means valuing and making this connection more explicit.
We honor and give meaning to those aspects of the learning experience that may be denied within a more uni-dimensional focus on the intellectual. Learning through soul also involves a deep, inter-connectedness of the socio-emotional dimension of learning with the world of ideas and intellectual tasks, a focus on the interface where these two worlds of the learning experience meet, where the inner and outer worlds converge Cousineau, To explore an idea means also to give voice to the images which shape its value and meaning for the participants.
Learning through soul actively involves the learner in this process of naming and giving voice to these images. It involves forming and working through and in relationship with others. The "other," be it an individual, the group, or the instructor, plays a critical role in stirring the soul to life in adult learning Briskin, The other often becomes the focus of what we believe or feel to be problematic in our lives. At times, they serve as the repository of the rejected parts of ourselves. Learning through soul involves understanding the importance or value of our rejected parts Moore, Nurturing soul also involves attending to the physical aspects of the learning environment.
An environment that is cold and sterile, or that is cluttered, messy, and arranged haphazardly can reflect itself in the soul of the group. While a seemingly small thing, attention to the physical aspects of the learning environment reflects the soul's affinity for the particular and the concrete. Caring for the physical space is as important to nurturing soul within a learning group as our physical bodies are to nurturing soul within our individual lives. We nurture soul by giving the ordinary, everyday aspects of these environments depth and value. The role of pedagogy and content in nurturing soul.
Learning through soul calls for a more central role of imagination and fantasy in our instructional methods and the content we use in these learning experiences. Stories, narratives, myths, tales, and ritual capture aspects of this world in ways not readily available within more traditional instructional methods. Unlike the ego, which prefers logic, rationale, predictability and order within the learning environment, the soul thrives on open spaces within the experience. Soul often meanders and wanders its way through our individual and collective lives, producing uncertain, ambiguous, and even messy situations.
Rigid adherence to an agenda or curriculum mitigates against expression of soul. In the teaching vignette, the group and I retreated to the perceived safety of the schedule agenda but, in doing so, experienced a loss of life and vitality. Denial of soul within the learning environment is denial of a life force and makes itself felt through an absence of energy, enthusiasm, or vigor within the group climate. The soul responds to less structured environments and to activities that bring one's inner life together with the outer world.
The use of stories, myths, images, dreams, and symbols in our teaching can help learners connect with the imaginal and intuitive dimensions through which soul communicates. Within the learning environment itself, we need to make room for grief work, passions of fear and sorrow as well as dreams and desires. In our approaches to the learning of our students, we need to cease exclusive reliance on images that come from without and encourage learners to attend to those images that arise within their own imaginations and fantasies as they pursue their learning tasks.
In nurturing soul, we don't try to solve problems for ourselves or for our learners, or move learners toward more rational, enlightened ways of being. Rather, we seek to cultivate the presence of soul, watch it gain expression, participate in its unfolding. Moore writes, It isn't about curing, fixing, changing, adjusting, or making healthy, and it isn't about some idea of perfection or even improvement. It doesn't look to the future for an ideal, trouble-free existence. Rather, it remains patiently in the present, close to life as it presents itself day by day, and yet at the same time mindful of region and spirituality. We focus on helping individuals and groups own what it is they are rejecting of themselves, helping them see what they are projecting onto others as necessary and of value to them.
In another group in which I was the instructor, we were debriefing an extended group activity and members were talking about what went well and what could be improved. Mary confronted another male member near the end of the session by saying rather empathically, "Al, you're always responding to emotional issues here with an intellectual response. For once I'd like to see you to tell us how you feel, not what you think! Growing more emphatic, Mary pointed out how his very response seemed to make her point. As the instructor, I said nothing during this exchange, symbolically creating a space through which this important aspect of the group's life might find expression.
Others in the group pointed out to Mary that they, too, would need time to think about a response and that perhaps this was Al's characteristic way of being within a learning group. As the discussion ensued, Mary seemed to realize that she was projecting onto Al some rejected and undesired parts of herself. To the group she admitted that her comments perhaps reflected more her own needs than it did anything about Al's behavior. But the group wisely encouraged Mary to value the role that Al played in the group. By doing so, they encouraged her to value that part of herself which she was quick to reject in Al's behavior, as they also recognized and valued that part of themselves.
We ended this session seemingly full of life and energy. For the first time since the class began meeting, groups of students stood around talking after the session ended, as if wanting to hold the experience for a little longer. In the vignette discussed earlier, however, confrontation within the group was experienced quite differently by the members.
Education adult Nurturing and
As the instructor, Xnd took it upon myself to facilitate a solution to edhcation problem being raised by the student in the group. Initially, I turned to the group for ideas about how we might address her concerns. When this seemed Nurturing and adult education fail, I "took charge" and directed us on to the next topic Nurturihg the agenda and asserted control through a lecturing style. In doing so, I tentatively "solved" the problem raised by the woman member. She seemed to be saying that she did not want close relationships within the group and the group's response to her seemed to acknowledge her position.
I solved her's and the group's problem by asserting my authority, thereby obviating the need for anyone to engage anyone else to any serious degree. In terms of learning through soul, the woman student and the group were making problematic an aspect of their life together and projecting onto a convenient "other," in this case, me, the group instructor. I responded by doing what they wanted me to do. What was being rejected and disowned was being projected onto an other. But, for my own reasons, I was caught up in the projection myself, and I failed to hear the language of the soul.
Had I framed the situation for the group in terms of the images prevalent at the time, such as the group as both good and bad mother, we may have been able learn something about ourselves as members of a learning group, and the dynamics that ensue within such groups. Both the learning task and the socio-emotional needs of the group would have been addressed. We can also nurture soul through the various readings and other assignments we give our learners. Learning through soul occurs most readily in environments rich with metaphor, story, images, art, music, film, and poetry.
These works focus in imaginative and poetic ways on numerous spiritual and profoundly moral issues of our times and represent powerful ways of arousing soul to life within settings of adult learning.