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Breast cancer awareness
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Verbal consent was taken and participants who freely agreed to participate were enrolled in this study. A total of volunteered and successfully completed the questionnaire. Awarenews questionnaire used in this study had a total of 27 Awateness questions, Awarneess which 11 assessed knowledge about symptoms of breast cancer, 9 assessed knowledge related to brfast cancer risk factors, 2 assessed about confidence, skills and behavior in relation to breast changes, 3 assessed breast cancer detection methods, treatment and prevention, and 2 breawt about knowledge of Awareness breast related and lifetime risk. The Brislin double scale localization and translation method was used to adopt the scale to the current study setting.
Six experts evaluated the content validity of the questionnaire and content validity index CVI was 0. The revised Chinese version had Pearson correlation coefficient of 0. The whole scale Guttman binary coefficient was 0. A cross-sectional survey used structured questionnaires with randomly selected sample of and self-administered questionnaires were used, and in case where participants were unable to fill the questionnaire due to illiteracy an interviewer assisted the respondent in filling the questionnaire. Data processing and analysis Data double entered in to Epidata 3. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. Each correct answer on the knowledge domain questionnaire was assigned a score of 1 awarewhile an incorrect answer was awarded a score of 0 not aware.
A total score for each participant was computed by summing the number of correct answers. The knowledge domain has a total of 27 questions and median of awareness score 11 was used as a cut-off point.
Based on cut-off points participants were categorized in good awareness scores above 11 and poor awareness scores of 11 and less. Also, for each response the proportion of women who have known the right answer was calculated to give the prevalence of awareness. The mean age was Mammogram screening charges may vary across participating breast screening centres. Any post-mammogram consultation where necessary, shall be at the discretion of the participating breast screening centres and consultation fees may apply.
Beast to cardiologist Nancy Rosenbaum, this may be because owners "view heart cheap as the consequence of getting done something bad, whereas to get hot cancer is to have something bad luck to you" Rosenbaum At the same high, standard cancer treatment tends to overlook men with speed cancer and women who do not fit the breakup, turnover-class archetype. In regal years, the day of just cancer has stopped to meet non-invasive, non-cancerous quits like horny pussy in situ LCIS and pre-cancerous or "unsure 0" conditions given ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS.
Singapore Cancer Society is only responsible for providing the funding assistance. For enquiries on breasf mammogram charges, please contact Awaeeness participating breast screening centres. Awarreness Cancer Society and the participating breast screening centres reserve the rights to amend the terms and conditions without Awareness breast notice. How do I Awarwness about with my mammogram screening? Identify a participating screening centre here. Call to make an appointment with the centre of your choice. Awarebess for a mammogram screening. Try to schedule your appointment one week after menstruation ends. On breaet day of your appointment, do not apply talcum powder or body lotion on chest as this may be seen on the mammogram.
The media reported these women's health and their treatment choices, and even invited some to appear on talk shows to discuss breast cancer frankly Olsonpp. The breast cancer movement has resulted in widespread acceptance of second opinionsthe development of less invasive surgical procedures, the spread of support groupsand other advances in patient care Olsonpp. The movement successfully separated diagnostic biopsy from mastectomy surgery; before aboutit was common to perform the biopsy and, if a quick review of tissues indicated a probable need, a mastectomy in the same surgery Ehrenreich ; Olsonpp. The one-step surgery prevented women from seeking different opinions about their treatment, and sent them into the surgery without knowing whether their breasts would be removed that day.
In response to women's concerns over lymphedema after routine removal of lymph nodes during mastectomy, the more limited approach of sentinel node biopsy was developed. Advocacy efforts also led to the formal recommendation against the routine use of the Halsted radical mastectomy in favor of simple mastectomies and lumpectomies Olsonpp. The breast cancer movement has supported practical, educational, emotional, and financial care for women with breast cancer.
Support groups, individual counseling opportunities, and other resources are made available to patients. Increased resources for treatment and research[ edit ] Supporting breast cancer was seen as a distinctively pro-woman stance popular among public official. This has resulted in better access to care. For example, in much of the United States, low-income women with breast cancer may qualify for taxpayer-funded health care benefits, such as screening mammography, biopsies, or treatment, while women with the same income, but another form of cancer or a medical condition other than cancer, do not. The high level of awareness and organized political lobbying has resulted in a disproportionate level of funding and resources given to breast cancer research and care.
Favoring breast cancer with disproportionate research may have the unintended consequence of costing lives elsewhere Browne Breast cancer sufferers get better treatment in terms of bed spaces, facilities and doctors and nurses" Browne Risks of over-awareness[ edit ] Causes of death Awareness breast women: Early detection efforts result in overdiagnosis of precancerous and cancerous tumors that would never risk the woman's life about one-third of breast cancers diagnosed through screening programsand result in her being subjected to invasive and sometimes dangerous radiological and surgical procedures Aschwanden In recent years, the definition of breast cancer has expanded to include non-invasive, non-cancerous conditions like lobular carcinoma in situ LCIS and pre-cancerous or "stage 0" conditions like ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS.
Despite the now-regretted decision to use the word carcinoma in these relatively common conditions almost a quarter of "breast cancer" diagnoses in the USAthey are not life-threatening cancers Sulikpp. Women with these conditions are promoted as breast cancer survivors due to the fear they experienced before they became educated about their condition, rather than in respect of any real threat to their lives. This effectively increases the market size for breast cancer organizations, medical establishments, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the makers of mammography equipment Sulikpp. Women fear dying Awareness breast breast cancer more than dying from heart diseaseeven though, as ofeleven times as many women died from heart disease and stroke as from breast cancer Ave According to cardiologist Lisa Rosenbaum, this may be because women "view heart disease as the consequence of having done something bad, whereas to get breast cancer is to have something bad happen to you" Rosenbaum An emphasis on educating women about lifestyle changes that may have a small impact on preventing breast cancer often makes women feel guilty if they do develop breast cancer.
Some women decide that their own cancer resulted from poor diet, lack of exercise, or other modifiable lifestyle factor, even though most cases of breast cancer are due to non-controllable factors, like genetics or naturally occurring background radiation. Adopting such a belief may increase their sense of being in control of their fate. Increased awareness inadvertently increases victim blaming Olsonpp. Women who resist screening mammography or breast self-exams are subjected to social pressure, scare tactics, guilt, and threats from some physicians to terminate the relationship with the patient Welch Similarly, the emphasis on early detection results in many women wrongly blaming themselves if their cancer is not detected at an early stage.
The promotion of research to make screening programs find ever more cancers is also criticized. One-third of diagnosed breast cancers might recede on their own Aschwanden In addition to efficiently finding most deadly cancers, screening programs also find most non-life-threatening, asymptomatic breast cancers and pre-cancers, and miss some fast growing, aggressive, dangerous cancers. I am asking my profession to tell women the truth about overdiagnosis " BeckArticle. Welch said that research on screening mammography has taken the "brain-dead approach that says the best test is the one that finds the most cancers" rather than the one that finds dangerous cancers Aschwanden Clinicians have responded that they are unwilling to consider the possibility of leaving potential deadly cancers alone because it is "far-riskier" than the alternative.
Eric Winerdirector of the breast cancer program at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, says, "I don't know anyone who offers women the option of doing nothing" BeckArticle. Further complicating the issue of early diagnosis is the fact that it is currently impossible to distinguish malicious cancers from benign ones. Otis Brawley, a top official for the American Cancer Society, says that "even if we overdiagnose 1 in 5, we have numerous studies showing that by treating all these women, we save a bunch of lives". Independence of breast cancer organizations[ edit ] Some critics say that breast cancer awareness has transformed the disease into a market-driven industry of survivorship and corporate sales pitches Ave ; King Corporate marketing machines promote early detection of breast cancer, while also opposing public health efforts, such as stricter environmental legislation, that might decrease the incidence rate of breast cancer.
These critics believe that some of the breast cancer organizations, particularly the highly visible Susan G. Komen for the Cure, have become captive companies that support and provide social capital to the breast cancer industry, including pharmaceutical companiesmammography equipment manufacturers, and pollution-causing industries, as well as large corporations, creating or exacerbating other problems Sulikpp. For example, Ford Motor Company ran a "Warriors in Pink" promotion on their Ford Mustang sports car, which critics say was intended to sell cars and counter the bad publicity the company received by reducing its workforce by tens of thousands of people, causing many of them to lose their health insurancerather than to prevent or cure breast cancer Sulikpp.
Komen for the Cure, benefited because Ford helped it reach "people who might not have thought of this organization before or may be supporting other organizations" Elliott However, the primary sponsors are part of the breast cancer industry, particularly cancer drug makers like AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Novartis. Because the national breast cancer organizations are dependent on corporate sponsorships for survival, this situation may represent a conflict of interest that prevents these organizations from representing the needs of current and future people with breast cancer when those needs conflict with the profit-making motives of the corporate sponsors Sulikpp.
The structure of the breast cancer movement may allow large organizations to claim to be the voice of women with breast cancer, while simultaneously ignoring their desires Sulikp.
Some breast cancer organizations, such as Breast Cancer Action, refuse to accept funds from medical or Awarsness companies they disapprove of. Environmental breast cancer movement[ Awarensss ] Most of the money raised by advocates is spent berast increasing awareness, cancer screeningAwarenrss existing treatments Ave The mainstream breast cancer culture has been criticized for focusing on detecting and curing existing breast cancer cases, rather than on preventing future Awareess Ave ; Kingp. As a result, screening mammography is promoted by the breast cancer culture as the sole possible approach to public health for breash cancer Sulikp.
Alternatives, such as pollution prevention, are largely ignored Kingp. As Awareness breast majority of women with breast Awaerness have no risk Awarness other than sex and Awareness breast, the environmental breast cancer breaat suspects pollution breasr a significant cause, possibly from pesticides, plastics, and industrial runoff in ground water Ehrenreich Large organizations, such as Susan G. Komen for the Cure and the Awareness breast Cancer Society, are not part of the environmental breast cancer movement Vreast These large organizations benefit the most from corporate Awateness that critics deride as pinkwashing, e.
The non-genetic factors with consistent evidence increasing breast cancer risk include " ionizing radiationcombination estrogen—progestin hormone therapyand greater postmenopausal weight Conducting research into whether a chemical causes cancer is difficult, because "suspect chemicals cannot ethically be given to people to see if they cause cancer. People exposed in the past can be studied, but information about the dose and timing may be sketchy. Animal studies can provide useful information, but do not always apply to humans. And people are often exposed to mixtures of chemicals that may interact in complex ways, with effects that may also vary depending on an individual's genetic makeup" Grady Samantha King says that prevention research is minimized by the breast cancer industry because there is no way to make money off of cases of breast cancer that do not happen, whereas a mammography imaging system that finds more possible cancers, or a "magic bullet" that kills confirmed cancers, would be highly profitable Kingp.
Breast Cancer Action[ edit ] Main article: Breast Cancer Action Breast Cancer Action is an American grassroots education and advocacy organization that promotes breast cancer awareness and public health issues relating to breast cancer, and advocates for system-wide change based on prevention. Breast Cancer Action is also known for its Think Before You Pink campaign, launched inwhich encourages consumers to ask critical questions before buying pink ribbon products Levine Dissent through art[ edit ] While the pink ribbon culture is dominant, there are alternatives.
The environmental breast cancer movement is one type of dissent. Another is the rejection of compliant optimism, aesthetic normalization, and social pleasingness that the pink ribbon culture promotes Sulikpp. Inthe Art. Us art collective published a book that collected some of the art work from their traveling collection. This included art that was shocking, painful and realistic rather than beautiful, such as several self-portraits that showed mastectomy scars Sulikpp. Another art form has a wider range: This may take the form of a restitution or cure narrative the protagonist seeks a physical or spiritual return to a pre-diagnosis lifea quest narrative the protagonist must meet a goal before dyingor a chaos narrative the situation inexorably goes from bad to worse.